Park Governance Models: Profit Centric View

There are 2 examples of what are predominately Government controlled and Tax driven governance models.  They are:
  1. For Profit – The Butchart Gardens (Canada)
  2. The true Benefit Organisation – financially independent from public funds: Cornwall Park (NZ)

As I work through various examples that use this framework (lens) and demonstrate the different and varied governance model, I will with each example briefly describe their key attributes and limits. The limits aren’t to be viewed as a criticism or a weakness of any given example but to highlight where and when this type of governance should be used and when another type of governance maybe more preferred.

A Summary of The Profit Centric models:

True Benefit Organisation


  • Lease & CBD property
  • Private Ownership
  • Large Scale – Auckland
  • No Legislation
  • Trust Board
  • Objective for social outcomes


  • Trust Deed
  • Connection with the community
  • Revenue foundation limits reach


  • Cornwall Park Trust (NZ)


For Profit


  • Commercial/Tourism
  • Private Ownership
  • Destination Icon
  • Legislation – nil
  • Company structure


  • Nil


  • The Butchart Gardens (Canada)


On the spectrum: